Hijrah Calendar 1431 H
The Hijrah calendar presented below is based on the concept of ‘Conjunction’. Conjunction occurs when the Moon is between the Sun and the Earth and the center of the Sun, the center of Moon and the center of Earth are in “ONE PLANE”. The Conjunction marks the end of the Hijrah month. The next Hijrah month commences on the “next DAY” of the “Conjunction DAY”. For example, if the Conjunction occurred on Thursday, the next month begins on Friday. It is important to note that, for the commencement of the new month the “time of Conjunction” is not the criterion and should not be applied. This is important as the calculation of the time of the day is totally and independently governed by the rotation of the Earth and the consequent apparent position of the sun in relation to a particular spot on Earth. To simplify, an observer on Earth divides his day and sets his clock on the basis of the Sun in relation to his Midnight Meridian. Conjunction dates and times (UT) are tabulated in Nautical Almanacs and websites for the entire year or years in advance.
In the calendar below the “Day of Conjunction” is used for the purpose of termination of the current Hijrah month. The Universal Time (UT) of Conjunction is used to calculate the Ground Position (GP) of the moon at the time of Conjunction.*Ground Position (GP) of the Moon: The Ground Position (GP) can be defined as the point on the surface of the Earth through which a line joining the center of the Earth and the center of the Moon passes. For every Conjunction, the Ground Position (GP) on the world globe is marked by a Red marker and the exact Ground Position (GP) by Latitude and Longitude is mentioned in the text below the globe in red.*The Globe: The purpose of the Globe is to demonstrate that over the 12 months of the lunar (Hijrah) year, Conjunction can appear at any spot and is thus, applicable world wide as there is only one Conjunction in one lunar (Hijrah) month.*Moon Phases : The various phases of the Moon along with the Hijrah month dates are just for the purpose of demonstrating the waxing and the waning cycle of the moon in a Hijrah month. It shows a regular pattern which is typical for a 29 day month and also typical for 30 day month at a particular location on the Earth. In this calendar the pattern is for Makkah.