I am a big fan for his legendary works.I am inspired with his exploration of knowledge in different fields when no one else in the world posses such a creativity and knowledge in combine.He discovered many thing before 500 years which are outstanding and legendary.His discoveries and inventions are researched for the last 10 decades and found that he is the father of our modern science.There are lot of thing i want to tell about leonardo ,but i cannot tell everything that I know.It took days to complete.But, I like to tell this,one of my favourite...which was told by Benvenuto Cellini a great architect who serves King Francis I while Leonardo da vinci was told dead in arms of the french king
"I have to record the words ,the king spoke to me; that he believed there have never been another man born in this world who knew much as leonardo. Not so much about painting,sculpture..an arcitecture ..as that he was a very great philosopher."
I m dedicating this , for the great man who ever lived;Leonardo da vinci.
Leonardo da Vinci
15 April. Leonardo is born in Anchiano, near Vinci (in the province of Florence). Illegitimate son of the notary, ser Piero and a young peasant woman. Leonardo spends his childhood and early adolescence in Anchiano and Vinci. He lives with his father who, in the meantime, marries Albiera degli Amadori.
After Albiera dies, he moves to Florence with his father.
Joins the studio of Andrea del Verrocchio, much frequented by celebrated artists and young talented men where he learns to draw, paint and sculpt.
Works on the completion of an angel in the Baptism of Christ painted in Verrocchio’s studio.
Listed as a member of the Company of St. Luke, the Florentine artists’ guild. It is from this date that we begin to see his first independent works.
Is accused, prosecuted and found not guilty of sodomy.
Receives another commission. The friars at the church of San Donato in Scopeto, near Florence, request him to paint an altarpiece for their monastery. Leonardo begins work on the Adoration of the Magi, which he is never to complete.
Leaves Florence to enter the service of Ludovico Sforza, nicknamed “the Moor”, the Seigneur of Milan, to whom he addresses a famous letter in which he lists his technical “secrets” and offers his services as engineer, architect, sculptor, painter and even musician. Leonardo lives approximately twenty years in Milan, painting, drawing, designing buildings and engineering projects.
Signs a contract with the friars of the Immaculate Conception to paint the Virgin of the Rocks.
Starts work on “The Horse”, the equestrian monument Ludovico wanted as a tribute to Francesco Sforza, his father. The statue, which was to be over 23 ft (7 meters) high and weigh around 71 tons (650 q), was never finished. Leonardo made the colossal clay model and the moulds for casting the bronze, but the model was later destroyed by French bowmen during the occupation of Milan in 1499.
Paints the portrait of Cecilia Gallerani, the picture known as Lady with the ermine. Begins studying various areas of science and technology such as anatomy and hydraulics. Directs numerous court festivities.
Starts painting The Last Supper, in the refectory of the monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie.
Leaves Milan in the company of Luca Pacioli a few months after French troops occupy the city.
After staying in Mantua and Venice (where he draws up a plan of defence against Turkish invasion), returns to Florence and lodges at the monastery of the Servants of the Annunciation.
For a few months, is in the service of Cesare Borgia who is involved in a number of military operations in Romagna and requests his assistance as a military engineer.
In Florence, he begins work on the Mona Lisa. The Seigneury commissions him to create a fresco of the Battle of Anghiari, but the work, for which he uses experimental painting techniques, will not survive very long. In the same year, he resumes his studies on flight and on anatomy.
His father, Piero, dies at the age of 80. Leonardo continues work on the Battle of Anghiari and plans the canal project of the River Arno.
Returns to Milan, where he stays for three months at the insistence of the French Governor, Charles d’Amboise. Is appointed artist and engineer to King Louis XII.
Again returns to Milan in the service of the French.
On 24 September he moves to Rome, where he resides in the Vatican, in the service of Giuliano dei Medici, the brother of Pope Leo X. Continues to paint and study. Makes plans for the port of Civitavecchia.
Moves to France at the invitation of the new King François I and lodges in the manor of Cloux, near the royal castle of Amboise.
On 23 April he makes his last Will and Testament, designating his pupil Francesco Melzi heir to all his manuscripts and instruments. He leaves the paintings still in his studio (including the Mona Lisa, Saint Jerome and Saint Anne) to his other pupil, Salai. He dies on 2 May and is buried in the town of Amboise, in the cloister of the church of Saint Florentin. There is no longer any trace of his remains (which were later to be moved to the chapel of Saint Hubert inside the castle) because many tombs were destroyed during the sixteenth-century Wars of Religion.
Famous Paintings of Leaonardo da vinci :
Historians agree that Leonardo commenced the painting of Mona Lisa in 1503, working on it for approximately four years and keeping it himself for some years after. Supposedly this was because Mona Lisa was Leonardo's favourite painting and he was loathe to part with it, however it may also have been because the painting was unfinished. Whatever the reason, much later it was sold to the King of France for four thousand gold crowns. The world has talked about it ever since. After the revolution in France the painting was transferred to the Louvre. Napoleon took possession of it using the panel to decorate his bedroom. Upon his banishment from France Mona Lisa once more returned to the care of the Louvre. What is certain is that the painting was never passed onto the rightful owner, that being the man who originally commissioned and presumably paid for it. .
The first written reference to the painting appears in the diary of Antonio de' Beatis who visited Leonardo on the 10th October 1517. He was shown three paintings by the master, who was aged sixty-five at the time. These three consisted of one of the Madonna and Child in the lap of St. Anne, one of a young St. John the Baptist and a third of a Florentine lady.
Who was the lady in question? At this time researchers remain uncertain of the sitter's identity with some claiming she was Isabella of Aragon -- the widowed Duchess of Milan; they point out the 'widows veil' on her head as supporting evidence. Others conclude she was the mistress of Giuliano de' Medici, but the veil on her head may well be a symbol of chastity, commonly shown at the time in portraits of married women. The path shown may also be the 'path of virtue', a reference to the story 'Hercules choice'; this was frequently referred to in Renaissance art and would be unlikely to appear in a painting of a mistress. It is probable that she was Mona Lisa Gherardini, the third wife of wealthy silk merchant Francesco di Bartolommeo di Zanobi del Giocondo. At this stage Lisa would have been over twenty-four years of age, by the standards of the time she was not in any way considered particularly beautiful, though Leonardo saw certain qualities which have now made her the most heavily insured woman in history.
The smile has become a hallmark of Leonardo's style. It is most obvious in the painting of the Mona Lisa, but also to be seen in most of his other works. There is no mistaking the same smile -- and upturn of the left side of the mouth -- on the face of St. Anne in the Burlington House Cartoon. That drawing dates from a bit earlier than the Mona Lisa, somewhere around 1498. Speculation exists that the smile originated from his mother, Caterina. A less romantic suggestion is that the painter merely "concerned himself with certain arrangements of lines and volumes, with new and curious schemes of blues and greens."
Various other suggestions have also been made as to the reason behind the smile including the simple idea that during this period in history women were instructed to smile only with one side of their mouths so as to add an air of mystery and elegance. An Italian doctor's answer was that the woman suffered from bruxism; this is an unconscious habit of grinding the teeth during sleep or times of great stress. The long months of sitting for the portrait could well have triggered an attack of teeth grinding. Leonardo did attempt to keep his subject relaxed and entertained with the use of music; he had six musicians to play for her plus and installed a musical fountain invented by himself. Different, beautiful works were read out loud and a white Persian cat and a greyhound bitch were there for playing with.
The most unusual suggestion is that Mona Lisa was really a man in disguise, perhaps being a form of self-portrait and the face of Leonardo himself. Computer tests show some of the facial features match well that of another(?)self-portrait of Leonardo. Some copies of the Mona Lisa also show the sitter as a male.
The truth is that this style of smile was not invented by Leonardo da Vinci. It can be found in a number of sculptures from the fifteenth century, one of these being Antonio Rossellino's Virgin; it is somewhat reminiscent of Greek funerary statues and Gothic statues in medieval cathedrals. The mysterious smile can also be found very widely in the works of Leonardo's master, Verrocchio and Leonardo used the same smile in a number of his paintings.
Aadoration of the magi
The Adoration of the Magi was commissioned for the altar of the monastery of San Donato a Scopeto, near Florence. Leonardo agreed to paint it within two-and-a-half years, on the understanding that he would receive nothing if the work was delivered late.
However, he abandoned the project in 1482, tempted away by the Duke of Milan and the promise of a regular income. Although the painting is unfinished, it is considered one of Leonardo's most important early works.
The subject of the painting - the worship of the infant Christ by the three wise men (or Magi)- was a popular one in the early Renaissance. The ruins and the sparring knights in the background signify the decline of pagan culture in the face of a new Christian era.
Look For - In the bottom right of the drawing, facing away from the crowd, is a young shepherd boy. It is believed this may have been a self portrait.
The Madonna and Child are arranged in a pyramid shape, and the gaze of the central characters is focussed on the pyramid's side. Leonardo used this composition technique in many of his later paintings.
Baptism of Christ
This painting was not by Leonardo, but by his tutor Verrocchio. However, it was common at the time for a master to leave details of a painting to his apprentices.
We believe that the angel on the left, and much of the background above it, were painted by a young Leonardo. Most of the painting is done in egg tempera, but Leonardo's angel is painted with oil paints, which were just being introduced to Italy. X-rays show that this part of the painting differs significantly from Verrocchio's original sketches.
It is said that Verrocchio was so impressed by Leonardo's work in this picture, that he vowed never to paint again.
Look For - The more subtle use of colour in Leonardo's figure. His angel also has flowing curly hair, a characteristic which Leonardo used in many of his later paintings.
Lady with the Ermine
Like many paintings thought to be by Leonardo, controversy surrounds this picture. Some question whether it was painted by Leonardo at all.
Art historians also disagree over who the subject of the portrait was. One theory suggests it shows a young lady named Cecilia Gallerani, who would have been just seventeen when when this picture was painted. Cecilia was the mistress of Ludovico Sforza - the Duke of Milan - until Ludovico settled down and married another woman.
If the model was Cecilia, then the Ermine in the picture may have had a special meaning. The Greek for Ermine is Galee - a pun on the model's name.
Parts of this picture have been painted over at some point in its history. The background has been darkened, and X-rays show a door has been removed. The original painting showed a woman wearing a transparent veil, but this has been retouched to look like hair. The bottom two fingers have also been altered, and look less realistic than the other two.
Look For - This painting is based on curved lines, which lead the eye. From the model's face, the gaze is drawn down the sleeve, across the back of the Ermine, and then up the other arm.
The head of the Ermine in this picture is particularly lifelike. Leonardo placed emphasis on natural accuracy, and may have studied the anatomy of the creature before beginning the painting.
St John the Baptist
This image of St John the Baptist was the last painting that Leonardo produced, and it was in his possession when he died. It is one of only a few that we can be absolutely certain the master painted.
Leonardo's version is strikingly different to other paintings of the Saint, who is normally portrayed as gaunt, and scraping a living in the desert on locusts and honey. It captures four recurring themes of Leonardo's figures; an enigmatic smile, flowing curly hair, and a finger pointing to heaven, all defined by dense shadows.
Many copies of this painting have been made, particularly by Leonardo's pupils.
Look For - The figure is wearing animal skins, and holding a reed cross. Experts believe these were added by a later painter.
The Annunciation depicts the moment when the angel Gabriel appears before Mary. The enclosed garden symbolises her virginity.
Two versions of this painting exist. The one in the Uffizi gallery is more likely to be Leonardo's own. A second version, which hangs in the Louvre could well be the work of Lorenzo di Credi, who, like Leonardo was also an apprentice of Verrocchio. However, the Louvre version also contains elements - such as realistic wings on the angel - which we associate with Leonardo's style.
Look For - The technical flaws in this painting are easy to spot. Mary has her hands resting on an altar, yet this has been drawn closer to the viewer than Mary is.
The painting also has a horizontally central vanishing point, which is unusual for Renaissance paintings.
The Last Supper
The Last Supper was painted onto the walls of the Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie near Milan. Leonardo spent three years painting the work, and much of that time was spent searching the streets of Milan for models of Christ and Judas. It is said that only Leonardo's threats to paint the Prior of the convent as Judas bought him the time he needed to finish.
Although it was common to paint directly onto the walls of building, Leonardo was not trained in this 'fresco' technique, and made a poor choice of materials. This, along with the humid conditions in the convent, meant that the painting began deteriorating while Leonardo was still alive. The refectory has also been flooded and used as a stable - but the painting's luckiest escape came during the Second World War, when the refectory was hit by a bomb. Only some carefully placed sandbags saved this masterpiece from destruction.
There have been many attempts to restore The Last Supper, most of which have done more harm than good. A full restoration was recently completed. It took twenty years - five times longer than Leonardo took to complete the original. However, virtually none of the original paint remains, and critics claim we can no longer regard this as a Leonardo painting.
Look For - The perspective focuses on the figure of Christ in the centre. The window behind his head looks like a halo. Judas is the only figure in the painting who is leaning away from Christ, and the only figure who is in shadow. In traditional paintings, Judas's halo was black.
Leonardo also played tricks with the perspective in this painting. We can see the table top, even though we shouldn't be able to from where we stand. And why are so many people crowded round a table when there wouldn't be room for them all to sit?
Virgin of the Rocks
Virgin of the Rocks was the first painting executed by Leonardo after he arrived in Milan. Critics argue over exactly what the painting depicts; some claim it shows the immaculate conception, while others think it recalls the moment when the infant Christ met St John the Baptist.
When Leonardo was commissioned to paint this piece, he was given a year to complete it. True to form, he over-ran, and a lengthy law suit followed. Leonardo also fell out with his sponsors over how much he should be paid for the work. Perhaps this is why he began a second version of the painting to give to the commissioners, selling the first on elsewhere.
Look For - The painting is set in a cave. Was he giving himself an opportunity to paint nature - or was he implying that nature was his church?
Leonardo has painted light to give this picture structure and form. Before Leonardo, artists had only used light crudely in their work.
By the 15th century, cannons had been used in battle for over a hundred years, and Leonardo himself drew designs for several. However, fifteenth century firearms were slow and cumbersome.
This catapult was designed to be loaded quickly, and could be left armed in case of surprise attacks. Leonardo envisioned rows of catapults fired simultaneously by men striking firing pins with hammers.
Leonardo also designed projectiles for his catapults. These had two tail fins for stability, and were filled with gunpowder, which would explode on landing.
We usually think of Leonardo as an artist. However, it was his skill as a military engineer that was largely responsible for securing his employment in 15th century Milan.
Around 1486, Leonardo drew several designs for a giant crossbow. The figure atop the machine gives an indication of scale. The weapon was cranked with winding gears. It had two different firing mechanisms - the simplest of which involved releasing a holding pin by striking it with a mallet.
Leonardo's investigations of the heart and circulation began in the 1490s; this anatomical depiction was produced around 1510 while he was based in Milan. Many of da Vinci's heart drawings were made from studies of the organs of oxen and pigs. It was only later in his life that he had access to human organs.
Leonardo made a number of advances in the understanding of blood flow:
* showed the heart is indeed a muscle and that it does not warm the blood
* found it has four chambers and connected the pulse in the wrist with contraction of the left ventricle
* deduced that eddy currents in the blood flow - created by structures in the main aorta artery - help heart valves to close
* suggested that arteries fur up over a lifetime, creating a health risk
He didn't understand that the blood was in a circulation system. He went along with the belief (commonly held at the time) that blood was made in the liver, cooled in the lungs, pumped by the heart and consumed in the muscles.
The sketch is one of the Windsor Folios, part of the Royal Collection, held at Windsor.
Leonardo was fascinated by flight, and drew many designs for flying machines. Although he never completed any, he did spend time thinking what might happen if one would fail
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