since only one member replied to me
but that was enough for me to share more interesting news wid all u guys
so here's today's FRESH News
NEWS :-01----kidney patients be careful more pills make their life quality less.......
Kidney disease patients undergoing dialysis must take more pills than most patients with other chronic diseases. While these medications are important for controlling patients' disease, at some point taking too many pills (with their ensuing side effects) may negatively affect patients' health-related quality of life, or their perceived physical and mental health.
Rajnish Mehrotra, MD and Yi-Wen Chiu, MD (Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute), and their colleagues conducted a study to see if "pill burden" affects dialysis patients' health-related quality of life. They studied 233 chronic dialysis patients from three clinics in different geographic areas in the United States.
The investigators found that patients took an average of 19 pills a day and that a quarter of the patients took more than 25 pills a day. Patients with a high pill burden had lower perceived physical health. Medications called phosphate binders, which control the level of phosphorous in the blood, accounted for about half of the daily pill burden. Sixty-two percent of the patients did not take these medications as directed. The more phosphate binders a patient was prescribed, the less likely they were to take their medications as directed and the less likely they were to have their blood phosphorous levels under control. These findings indicate that increasing the number of prescribed pills does not seem to improve control of phosphorous levels and may come at the cost of poorer health-related quality of life.
The authors note that any attempts to tackle dialysis patients' pill burden must address the number of phosphate binders a patient is prescribed on a daily basis.
NEWS 02:- Health is Wealth BUT now Wealth is Health, finds study
The Economic and Social Research Council funded study, led by Professor James Nazroo from The University of Manchester with a team at University College London and the Institute for Fiscal Studies, found that:
• People from lower socio-economic groups, on average, die earlier than their wealthier counterparts.
• People from lower socio-economic classes, and people with less education and wealth, are more likely to suffer from both self-reported illnesses such as, depression, and also from long-term conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes and obesity.
• The inequalities in health and life expectancy arising from socioeconomic inequalities persist into the oldest ages, although they are larger for those aged in their 50s and 60s.
• Early retirement is generally good for people’s health and well-being unless it has been forced on them - and this is usually because of redundanc or poor health.
• People forced into early retirement generally have poorer mental health than those who take routine retirement, who in turn have poorer mental health than those who have taken a voluntary early retirement.
• Older people who participate in non-work activities, such as volunteering or caring for others, have better mental health and well-being, but only if they feel appreciated and rewarded for their contribution.
“These findings have important implications for us all,” said Professor Nazroo who is based at The University of Manchester’s School of Social Sciences.
“Increases in life expectancy raise major challenges for public policy. Among these is the need to respond to marked inequalities in economic position and life expectancy at older ages.
“In addition, despite the fact that we are all living longer, many people now stop work before the statutory retirement age and a large proportion of these still have the potential to provide a positive input into society, the economy and their own well-being.
“Our findings will help us understand how society can help people realise this potential.”
The study was based on a detailed analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA) using data collected between 2002 and 2007.
NEWS 03:- Brain cell mechanism for decision making also underlies judgment about certainty
University of Washington (UW) researchers who study how the brain makes decisions are uncovering the biological mechanisms behind the belief that a choice is likely to be correct. Their most recent results will be published in the May 8 edition of Science.
"Choice certainty," noted one of the researchers, Dr. Roozbeh Kiani, "allows us to translate our convictions into suitable actions." Several other research projects have shown that choice certainty is closely associated with reaction time and with decision accuracy.
Kiani and the co-author of the May 8 Science article, Michael N. Shadlen are members of the UW Department of Physiology and Biophysics and of the National Primate Research Center. Shadlen is also an investigator in the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
The researchers tested the possibility that the same brain cell mechanism that underlies decision making might also underlie judgments about certainty. In their study, rhesus monkeys played a video game in which they watched a dynamic, random dot display. They then had to determine the direction of motion. The difficulty of the task was varied by both the percentage of moving dots and the viewing time. After a short delay, the fixation point faded. This cued the monkey to indicate its choice of direction by moving its eyes toward one of two targets. The monkey would receive a reward for each correct choice, and no reward for an incorrect choice.
On a random half of the trials, the monkey could pass on making a choice and instead pick a third, fixed-position target that guaranteed a small reward. While watching the moving dots, the monkeys didn't know whether this third option would be offered. The sure bet was shown during the short delay.
"The monkeys opted for the sure target when the chance of making a correct decision about the motion direction was small," the researchers noted. They picked the sure bet more frequently when the visual evidence was weaker and duration shorter.
According to the researchers, when the monkeys waived the sure-bet option, they more accurately picked the correct direction than when the wager wasn't offered. This occurred at all levels of difficulty, suggesting that the monkeys chose the sure bet because of uncertainty, not because that round of the game was too hard.
The researchers recorded activity from 70 brain cells while the monkeys made their decisions. The cells were located in the lateral intraparietal cortex of the brain. The parietal lobe is located just under the crown of the head and plays a role in spatial sensations. In rhesus monkeys, the lateral area of the parietal lobe is attuned to movement.
The researchers found that the pattern of firing activity in these brain nerve cells could predict the direction choice and whether the monkey would opt out of the direction decision by taking the sure bet when it was offered. Normally, these brain cells change their firing rates as evidence accrues for one direction or the other, ultimately giving rise to a clear decision through high or low firing rates.
On some trials, however, these same brain cells seemed to dilly-dally and achieve an intermediate "gray zone" of activity. Those were the trials where the monkey declared uncertainty by choosing the sure-bet target.
Analysis of the detailed data from the study results show that the mechanism underlying certainty in these brain cells is linked to the same evidence accumulation that underlies choice and decision time.
"Some research has suggested that brain cells in an area associated with reward expectation or conflict are associated with decision uncertainty," Kiani noted. "However, these brain cells presumably receive this information from neurons involved in decision making."
The results of this study, according to the authors, advance the understanding of brain cell mechanisms that underlie decision making by coupling for the first time the mechanisms that lead to decision formation and the establishment of a degree of confidence in that decision.
"This simple mechanism," the authors said, "brings certainty, which is commonly conceived as a subjective aspect of decision making, under the same rubric as choice and reaction time."
According to the researchers, it is likely that these cells also carry the relevant signals for assigning the probability of receiving a reward. The researchers noted that it seems likely that this computation of choice certainty is passed from the lateral parietal cortex to brain structures that anticipate reward, and that the response from these structures influence the decision to pick or forgo the sure bet if it is offered.
The authors went on to add, "Our findings suggest that when the brain embraces truth, it does so in a graded way so that even a binary [yes/no, true/false, left/right] choice leaves in its wake a quantity that represents a degree of belief. The neural mechanism of decision making doesn't flip into a fixed point, but instead approximates a probability distribution."
NEWS:- 04Raytheon Develops Anti-Surface Warfare Capability For Tomahawk Block IV Missile
Raytheon has developed a technology plan to enhance moving target capabilities for the combat-proven Tomahawk Block IV missile. The technology will enable naval forces to effectively engage moving maritime surface targets and conduct anti-surface warfare missions.
"This capability will allow the warfighter to attack a new tactical target set from more than 900 nautical miles (1035 statue miles)," said Harry Schulte, vice president of Raytheon Missile System's Air Warfare Systems' product line.
"Raytheon's technology road map is the first step toward a rapid-development effort that will deliver a single, affordable, multi-mission missile capable of land attack and anti-surface warfare operations."
The Tomahawk Block IV is a surface- and submarine-launched, precision-strike, stand-off weapon. It is designed for long-range precision strike missions against high-value and heavily defended targets.
More than 1,900 Tomahawk rounds have been fired in support of almost every conflict since 1991, and more than 1,300 Tomahawk Block IV missiles have been delivered since 2005. The Tomahawk Block IV is integrated on numerous surface and subsurface combatant platforms in the U.S. Navy and subsurface combatant vessels in the U.K. Royal Navy.
NEWS 05:- Sea-Based Missile Defense Moves Forward
Riki Ellison, Chairman and Founder of the Missile Defense Advocacy Alliance, MDAA, told the MDAA membership last week of the establishment of a new U.S. Navy command that will support our nation's missile defense program, and he said it is a sign of support for sea-based missile defense by President Barack Obama's Administration.
His words on this important milestone are as follows:
"On the last day of April this year, in a small sleepy southern shore side town in Virginia on the banks of the Potomac River, Admiral Robert Willard lead the establishment ceremony of the U.S. Navy Air and Missile Defense Command (NAMDC) at Dahlgren, Virginia declaring the U.S. Navy's newest center of excellence as a critical core mission for our nation, the U.S. Navy and the joint service.
'We're on a quest to field a Naval capability that is equally adept servicing National Missile Defense of The United States, regional missile defense for our allies and friends abroad, and theater defense for our forward fighting forces, this capability must fold seamlessly into the joint force and accommodate both U.S. and foreign command and control protocols,' remarked Admiral Willard."
"Joining Admiral Willard was the Commander of the 3rd Fleet Vice Admiral Samuel Locklear, III who together recognized and officially recognized that 'In our Navy, there was only one perfect choice to develop and lead this center of excellence.
His brilliant work as a Program Director for the Missile Defense Agency, combined with his renowned experience as an Air Defense Commander have made him indispensable, and the Navy's foremost uniformed authority in air and missile defense, RADM Brad Hicks was the unanimous pick by Navy three and four star leadership, across the board,' to be the first Commander of the Navy Air and Missile Defense Command."
"This Command will join the two other U.S. Navy centers of excellence and knowledge in Nevada and California on core missions of strike and underwater warfare that are commanded by one and two star Admirals. This new command will weave air, cruise and ballistic missile defense together to develop and provide the best excellence of knowledge that would support our nation's need and requirement of missile defense systems to defend and protect the American Public, our Armed Forces and our allies."
"The Navy and Air Missile Defense Command will take the U.S. Navy to a new unprecedented level of incorporating missile defense into the strategic and tactical fabric of their service. '...Ballistic Missile Defense is going to be a core mission in the United States Navy and we are seeing that capability and capacity in greater demand than we ever have before,' Admiral Gary Roughead Chief of Naval Operations said."
"This new Command was stood up in three months and under President Obama's Administration where Secretary Gates has requested an additional $200 million for 6 new Aegis ships and an additional $700 million, of which a majority would be allocated for additional sea-based missile defense interceptors (SM-3s) in the 2010 DOD budget.
"There will be over 22 Aegis ships, both Cruisers and Destroyers, this year that are completely ballistic missile defense capable to track, discriminate and intercept short and medium-range missiles. On February 21, 2008, the Aegis system on the U.S. Lake Erie intercepted and destroyed a harmful satellite that was faster and higher in altitude than the recent North Korean tapeo-dong missile that was launched on April 4.
For the protection of Japan and South Korea from North Korea, the protection of Israel and the Arab Gulf States from Iran, Aegis ballistic missile defense ships perform a vital role today and the future for extending U.S. deterrence and stability in these regions."
Ellison concluded his remarks with this comment: "We at MDAA endorse and commend the decision to establish the U.S. Navy's Air and Missile Defense Command and the selection of Rear Admiral Brad Hicks to be the first commander, as this will make our nation and our world a safer place."
ok soo hmmm i think thas enough for today
plzzzz dont kill me if u dont like these news and u r open to suggest me wat kind of news u i.s. all the mwmbers of this forum might like to read
i will b thank full indeed
thanxx again and special thanxxx to the one & only guy who replied my post
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