The physio-graphic divisions of India start with the great Himalayan peaks in the north, the sea beaches in the south, the Thar desert in the west and the breath-taking natural heritage in the east. These are making India a geographically vibrant, colorful and truly incredible country. These are varied nature of physio graphic divisions in India. India has many land forms which divided into the following physio graphic divisions:

  1. The Himalayan Mountains
  2. The Great Northern Plains
  3. The Peninsular plateau
  4. The Indian Desert
  5. The Coastal Plains
  6. The Islands

Himalayan Mountains

The term "Himalaya" is derived from Sanskrit. It means "The Abode of Snow".
The Himalayan Mountains (Northern Mountains) consist of the youngest and the loftiest mountain chains in the world.
It covers for a distance of 2,500 km from the Indus in the west to Brahmaputra in the east. The width of the Northern Mountains varies from 500 km in Kashmir to 200 km in Arunachal Pradesh.
The Pamir Knot, which is popularly known as the "Roof of the World" connects between the Himalayas and the high ranges of Central Asia. From the Pamir, Himalayas extend eastward in the form of an arc shape.
The Northern Mountains is grouped into three divisions.

  1. The Trans-Himalayas
  2. Himalayas
  3. Eastern or Purvanchal hills

The Great Northern Plains

The fertile land extending across seven north Indian states and it forms the Great Northern Plains.
The Great Northern Plains lies to the south of the northern mountains. This plain is one of the most extensive stretches of the alluvium in the world. It is formed by the rivers Indus, Ganga, Brahmaputra and their tributaries.
The length of the plain is about 2,400 km and the width lies from 240 to 320 km. Its width increases from east to west. It covers an area of over 7 lakh sq.km.
The Great Plains of India is remarkably a homogeneous surface with an imperceptible slope. They are formed mostly by the depositional process of the Himalayan and Vindhyan rivers. These rivers deposit enormous quantity of sediments deposited along the foothills and flood plains.
The Peninsular Plateaus

The plateau region lies to the south of the Great Northern Plains. This is the largest physio-graphic division of our country.
It covers an area of about 16 lakh sq.km (about half of the total area of the country). It is an old rocky plateau region. The topography consists of a series of plateaus and hill ranges interspersed with river valleys.
Aravalli hills mark the north-western boundary of the plateau region. Its northern and north-eastern boundaries are marked by the Bundelkhand upland, Kaimur and Rajmahal hills.
The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats mark the western and eastern boundaries respectively.
The altitude of a large portion of the plateau is more than 600 m from mean sea level.
The peak of Anaimudi is the highest point in the plateau. Its height is 2,695 mtrs. It is located in Anaimalai. The general slope of this plateau is towards east.
The Great Plateau is a part of the Gondwana (very ancient one) land mass. Due to the old age, the rivers in this region attained their base level and developed broad and shallow valleys.
The river Narmada divides the plateau region of India broadly into two parts. The region lying to the north of the Narmada is called the Central Highlands and the region lying to the south of Narmada is called the Deccan Plateau.
All the major rivers i.e. Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri etc. lying to the south of the Vindhyas flow eastwards and fall into the Bay of Bengal. Narmada and Tapti are the two rivers situated to the south of the Vindhyas flow westward. Their movement towards west is due to the presence of a rift valley in the region.
The Indian Desert

The Thar desert, also known as the Great Indian desert. It is a large arid region in the north western part of the Indian subcontinent that covers an area of 2,00,000 km2 and forms a natural boundary between India and Pakistan.
It is the 7th largest desert in the world, and world's 9th largest sub-tropical desert located in Western part of the India.
The desert lies in the western part of the aravalli range and covers 2/3 of Rajasthan state.
There are two major divisions in the Thar desert. They are known as the Actual desert region (Marusthali) and the semi desert region (Bhangar).
Many different types of sand dunes and salt lakes (Dhands) are seen here.
The Coastal Plains

The Peninsula Plateau of India is flanked by narrow coastal plains of varied width from north to south, It is known as the Western Coastal Plains and the Eastern Coastal Plains.
They were formed by the depositional action of the rivers and the erosional and depositional actions of the sea-waves.
The Islands

India has two major island groups namely Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep. The former group consists of 572 islands which are located in Bay of Bengal, and the later one has 27 islands and are located in Arabian Sea.
The islands of Andaman and Nicobar are largely tectonic and volcanic origin. India's only active volcano is found on Barren Island in Andaman and Nicobar group of Islands, while the islands of the Arabian Sea are mainly coral origin.