The Signs of a Hypocrite in Islam:
The Signs of a Hypocrite in Islam:
Abdullah ibn ‘Amr (RA) says that Rasulullah (SAW) said: “Four traits whoever possesses them is a hypocrite and whoever possesses some of them has an element of hypocrisy until he leaves it: the one who when he speaks he lies, when he promises he breaks his promise, when he disputes he transgresses and when he makes an agreement he violates it.” (Muslim and Bukhari)
1) Other wordings of this same hadith: “The signs of the hypocrite are three: when he speaks he lies, when he promises he breaks his promise and when he is entrusted he betrays the trust.” (Bukhari and Muslim)
“…even if he prays and fasts and imagines that he is a Muslim.” (Muslim)
2) Nifaq (hypocrisy): in the Arabic language means the general category of deception, scheming and presenting an outward appearance of good while concealing its opposite.
3) In the Shari ‘a, nifaq is of two types:
a) Greater (An-Nifaq Al-Akbar): To present an outward appearance of belief in Allah, his Angels, his books, his messengers, the last day, etc. while concealing within that which negates all or some of that. This is the hypocrisy which Rasulullah (SAW) confronted during his life and the ones who Allah said in the Qur’an that they are in “the lowest depth of hell-fire”.
b) Lesser (An-Nifaq Al-Asghar) or hypocrisy of action: To present an outward appearance of good and good deeds while concealing within that which negates that. This form of hypocrisy is built on the 5 things mentioned in the hadith at hand.
4) The actions in this hadith are all part of lesser hypocrisy: One who has these character traits in interaction with other people is most likely to have them with regard to Allah and his Prophet’s (AS’s). That is why the existence of them is a ‘sign’ of the existence of greater nifaq.
5) Lying. Al-Hassan Al-Basri said: “Nifaq is the difference between the inner and the appearance, between statement and action and between entering and leaving and it used to be said that the foundation of nifaq upon which it is built is lying.”
6) Breaking Promises. This falls into two categories: a) Making a promise with no intention of keeping it. Al-Awaa’il said that one who says “I will do such-and-such Inshallah” without intending to do it has committed both lying and breaking a promise.
b) Making a promise intending to keep it and then later deciding to break it.
7) Transgression in Dispute: The main meaning of ‘transgression’ here is to intentionally speak other than truth making truth falsehood and vice versa. Lying “calls to” this as in the hadith: “Beware of lying for lying guides to transgression and transgression leads to the fire.” (Bukhari, Muslim). Rasulullah (SAW) said: “The most hated of men to Allah is the one given to fierce and violent disputation.” (Bukhari, Muslim) Rasulullah (SAW)) said about the one who takes what is not his through clever speech has only been given a piece of the fire.
Breaking Agreements. Allah said:
وَلَا تَقْرَبُوا مَالَ الْيَتِيمِ إِلَّا بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ حَتَّىٰ يَبْلُغَ أَشُدَّهُ ۚ وَأَوْفُوا بِالْعَهْدِ ۖ إِنَّ الْعَهْدَ كَانَ مَسْئُولًا
“And fulfill your agreements for verily agreements will be asked about.”(Surah Al-Isrā 17: 34)
Allah says: وَأَوْفُوا بِعَهْدِ اللَّهِ إِذَا عَاهَدْتُمْ وَلَا تَنْقُضُوا الْأَيْمَانَ بَعْدَ تَوْكِيدِهَا وَقَدْ جَعَلْتُمُ اللَّهَ عَلَيْكُمْ كَفِيلًا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَفْعَلُونَ
“And fulfill Allah’s agreement when you have made an agreement and don’t violate your oaths after they have been established and you have made Allah your guardian (therein).” (Surah An-Nahl 16: 91)
The most serious oath to dishonor is the oath of allegiance to the khalifah of the Muslims.
9) Betraying of Trusts: When a Muslim is entrusted with something, he must do his best to protect it. Allah said: يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَخُونُوا اللَّهَ وَالرَّسُولَ وَتَخُونُوا أَمَانَاتِكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
“O ye that believe! Betray not the trust of Allah and the Messenger, nor misappropriate knowingly things entrusted to you.” (Surah Al-Anfaal 8: 27)
10) These issues have all been connected to hypocrisy in the Qur’an:
a) Surah Al-Munaafiqoon 63: 1-2 (Lying, breaking oaths)
إِذَا جَاءَكَ الْمُنَافِقُونَ قَالُوا نَشْهَدُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُهُ وَاللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ لَكَاذِبُونَ
َ اتَّخَذُوا أَيْمَانَهُمْ جُنَّةً فَصَدُّوا عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّهُمْ سَاءَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ
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