Primary Thinking vs Secondary Thinking:

Primary Thinking based upon Original Source of Information
Primary thinking is the most authentic. Examples: Quran, Work of Nature

وَلَا تَقْفُ مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ ۚ إِنَّ السَّمْعَ وَالْبَصَرَ وَالْفُؤَادَ كُلُّ أُولَـٰئِكَ كَانَ عَنْهُ مَسْئُولًا Surat 17/Ayah36 You should not take a stand where you have no personal knowledge Mind it, the ear and the eye and the heart - all of them shall have to answer in regard to the question whether personal inquiry was made about the concerned matter

Secondary Thinking isbased upon secondary source of information
Secondary thinking is always less authentic. Examples: Cleric's sermons, Sects, History. (Secondary thinking does not question the original source of information emotions are invoked to enforce the acceptance. Non authentic additions in religions are over emphasized)

Rational vs Emotional Thinking

Rational thinking refers to logic or reasoning involved in the thought process.
All people are capable of thinking rationally, but when it comes to a religion, the people tend to cloud this ability because of emotions, bias or illiteracy.

Emotional thinking: Opposite to the rational thinking, emotional thinking is based on passions. Emotions can be a great motivator for everything that happens in life. However, the emotional thinking style, unlike the logical thinking style, is often not based on a great deal of facts and it often requires very little thinking.

Traditional Thinking vs Out-of-The-Box-Thinking

Traditional Thinkingis a traditional way of thinking where views and approach of the fore fathers is invoked to validate current or any new situation. وَقَالُوا رَبَّنَا إِنَّا أَطَعْنَا سَادَتَنَا وَكُبَرَاءَنَا فَأَضَلُّونَا السَّبِيلَا 33/67 At that time they will also say, "O our Rabb! Verily we obeyed our leaders who had assumed a higher role for themselves; and they misled us from the right path.

Out-of-The-Box-Thinking:قُلْ إِنَّمَا أَعِظُكُم بِوَاحِدَةٍ ۖ أَن تَقُومُوا لِلَّـهِ مَثْنَىٰ وَفُرَادَىٰ ثُمَّ تَتَفَكَّرُوا ۚ Surat SABA 34/ Ayah 46. Tell them (O Rasool!), all I ask you is just one thing; you stop for a while, for God sake, in two by two or one by one and then think (Ponder)
Out of the box Lateral thinking is helpful to remain at forefront of the changing world of developments. Examples: Technological developments, innovations, scientific research and discoveries, Real scholars etc