Mongolia is a landlocked country in Central Asia. It is bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south, east and west. Ulaanbaatar, the capital and also the largest city, is home to about 45% of the population. Mongolia's political system is a parliamentary republic.
The area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Hunnu, the Syanbi, the Rouran, the Gökturks, and others. In 1206 Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, and his grandson Kublai Khan conquered China to establish the Yuan Dynasty. After the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict and occasional raids on the Chinese borderlands. In the 16th and 17th centuries, Mongolia came under the influence of Tibetan Buddhism. At the end of the 17th century, all of Mongolia had been incorporated into the area ruled by the Qing Dynasty along with China. During the collapse of the Qing Dynasty the Mongols established Temporary Government of Khalkha in 30 November 1911. On 29 December 1911 Mongolia declared independence from the Manchu's Qing Dynasty and this National Liberation Revolution ended the Manchu's rule that lasted 220 years (153 years after the collapse of the Zunghar Khanate).