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sunnyajmal
05-17-2009, 09:14 AM
A Brief Introduction to Pashto Language



Pashto is the language of Pashtuns. They are, historically, inhabited mainly in Afghanistan; Pakistans North West Frontier and Balochistan. Population is estimated around twenty five millions. Based on Fairly reliable sources, while 52.9 percents speak Pashto in Afghanistan, ethnically Pastuns make up 60 to 65 percents of the population. Based on a theory that attributes Pashuns to Israelite origin, Pashto had been considered a language of Semitic group. That theory is recorded in great details in Makhzani Afghani, a book written by Niamatulla Herawi in the eleventh Hejri century (17th A.D.) and is widely used as a reference source by Afghan scholars and non-Afghan orientalists in favor of the Israelite theory of Pashtuns.



At the early nineteenth century, when European scholars became interested in Pashtuns origin, some accepted the Israelite theory, but others deemed the theory wrong and called Pushtuns to be Arians. (Sir William Jones, Alexander Burnes, William Moorcroft subscribe to the Israelite theory. On the other hand, Mountstuart Elphinston, John Malcolm, Bernard Doren, and James Darmsteter believe in Arian origin of Pashtuns.) Scholars favoring the Israelitic theory, believe that Pashto is like Arabic and Hebrew a Semitic language. On the other hand, those who accept the Arian origin of Pahtuns, relate Pashtu to Indo-European language group.



At present, based on scientific research in Philology and History, most Afghans as well as foreign scholars agree that Pashto belongs to the Northeast Arian branch of Indo- European language group and its kinship with ancient (Avista and Saka ) languages is considered a proven fact. Ancient forms of the language can be found in the (Zand and Avesta). The late Norwegian scholar, Georg Morgenstierne (1892-1978) accepts the Indo-European and North-east Arian origin of Pashto language but instead of its relation with (Avesta), he believes Pashto is of (Saki) origin.*



As a consequence of life in mountainous areas, weak socio-economic inter-relations, along with other historic and linguistic reasons, there are many dialects in Pashto language. However, as a whole, Pashto has two main dialects: soft or western dialect and hard or eastern dialect. The difference between these two dialects is in the use of some vowels and two sounds: (sh, gh to be added in Pashto alphabet).



Like Pashtuns are called Afghans by non-Pashtuns; Pashto is called Afghani. Based on Ghaznavid era literature, written history of the word afghan extends to more than a thousand years. The name Afghanistan, as documented in the History of Herat (12th A.D.) has a history of more than 700 years. In the Indian Subcontinent, Pashtuns are called Pathan which scholars think is the Hindi variation of Pashtun.



Pashto alphabet is made Arabic letters. The numbers of sound letters (Phonemes) reaches to forty, of which eight sounds are distinctly Pashto, and the rest are the same as Arabic sounds. Although, we dont have much definitive information regarding the kind of letters used in written Pashto before the present Arabic based letters. Form coins, earthenware and inscriptions, discovered in various parts of Pashtunhkwa, areas where Pushtuns historically lived, it can be guessed that at some point of time, Pashto was written in Kharoshti. But as of today, scholars have not made a lasting judgment on the subject of ancient Pashto alphabet.

With regards to the formation of contemporary Pashto alphabet, it is generally said, that in the era of Gaznvid Sultan Mohmud, his wazir Khwaja Hassan Maiwandi, instructed Qazi Saifullah to develop alphabet for Pashto language. After hard work and many improvements the present form of Pashto alphabet was adopted. But Baizid Roshan, a Pasthun religious and political leader, (931-980), prides himself for inventing Pashto letters, superimposing them on Arabic and thus creating Pashto alphabet. Anyhow, Pashto alphabet has gone through a series of changes introduced by such prominent Pashtuns as Roshans peer Baizid Ormar, Nangarhari Akhund Darviza (939-1048), Khushal Khan Khatak (1022-1100) and latter on by Wazir Mohamma Gul Khan, Khan Abdul Samad Khan, and Qalandar Momand. But the present form of Pashto alphabet, initiated by Pashto Tolana (official English name), rectified and agreed upon by scholars in Afghanistan and Pahtunkhwa, has become popular and is widely accepted for writing Pashto.



Pata Khazana or Hidden treasure, compiled by Mhammad Hotak (1728) traces Pashto literatures poetic samples as far back as the 2nd Hijri Qamari (7th A.D.). Tazkiratul-Awlia, written in Pashto by Suliman Maku in 1215, extends the history of Pashto prose to about 800 years. After Roshani era or 10th century Hijri Qamari (16th A.D.) Pashto written literature, till present day, has had a steady continuity. The era of Khoshal Khan, his sons and his grandsons is considered the golden age of Pashto literature. We will have a headless body, as the saying goes, if Landie and Khoshal Khatak are taken awy from Pashto literature.



Today, Pashto literatures active cultural domains are Kabul, Kandahar, Gandahara ( Nangarhar and Peshawar area) and Quetta ( Baluchistan) and numerous Pashtun men of letters, poet and writers are moving forward with the world cultural caravan.s.

lovely angel
05-17-2009, 09:18 AM
but is dis classes specially for commondo??

sunnyajmal
05-17-2009, 09:20 AM
First lesson:

Pashto Alphabets:

http://www.nidokidos.org/userpix/36573_u1_pashto_1.jpg


Pashto keyboard layout:

http://www.nidokidos.org/userpix/36573_keybon_1.jpg

sunnyajmal
05-17-2009, 09:21 AM
everyone can participate yar, no problem...
but it was Commondo's suggestion to start for him, so i wrote it...

Commondo
05-17-2009, 10:26 AM
bhai dont mind can you add this to my thread....I want everything to be under one roof........

sunnyajmal
05-17-2009, 10:29 AM
its Ok yar, but there was crowed of too many people and different types of replays and comments...so we cannot differentiate the real class from the others...
and i think its better here, coz the others may also take benefits of it...
but still if u say i will move it to your thread no problem...

Commondo
05-17-2009, 10:43 AM
no problem....I did not think that way.....thanx for it......keep it this way only......

sunnyajmal
05-17-2009, 10:45 AM
thank you bhai......

Commondo
05-17-2009, 11:05 AM
aur kya bhai.....

sunnyajmal
05-17-2009, 11:10 AM
so just check and ask me if u have any questions

Masoom_se_chahat
05-17-2009, 11:34 AM
sunny qandem agar brief introduction e tor bashad khair baz full che qesem ast?

I hope commondo yaad gerad soon INSHALLAH

Commondo
05-17-2009, 11:37 AM
Inshalllah....

Masoom_se_chahat
05-17-2009, 11:55 AM
hmm ALL THE BEST SIRRRRRRRR

sunnyajmal
05-17-2009, 12:18 PM
sunny qandem agar brief introduction e tor bashad khair baz full che qesem ast?

I hope commondo yaad gerad soon INSHALLAH

hahaha....fikr na ku jan......har qadar ke khwasta bashad ma barayeshan malomaat tahya mekunm, kho mekhwahm ke Pashto wa Dari ra har kas yad dashta bashand....

Commondo
05-17-2009, 12:58 PM
ok sir......I will check......

Masoom_se_chahat
05-17-2009, 01:51 PM
sunny qandem agar brief introduction e tor bashad khair baz full che qesem ast?

I hope commondo yaad gerad soon INSHALLAH

hahaha....fikr na ku jan......har qadar ke khwasta bashad ma barayeshan malomaat tahya mekunm, kho mekhwahm ke Pashto wa Dari ra har kas yad dashta bashand....

hahahaha
thats the spirit

GOOD LUCK to both...

sunnyajmal
05-17-2009, 02:25 PM
thank you .........wa tu ham koshish ko.......

Commondo
05-17-2009, 05:32 PM
whats the next class bhai....

Dalinder Modi
05-17-2009, 05:53 PM
sanga ye ??

sunnyajmal
05-19-2009, 08:51 AM
salam Dalindar,
Nido ta pa khir raghli........

so did u learn all these? if yes then we will start the new lesson...

Commondo
05-19-2009, 10:06 AM
Am ready for the next lession......

sunnyajmal
05-20-2009, 01:44 PM
Ok good,
lemme write some basic things....

Hello salm
How are you? t tsnga yy?
Fine SH

Are you happy? tse khwaSH yy?
I am happy z khwaSH ym
I am not happy z khwaSH n ym

Are you sad? tse nkhwaSH yy?
I am sad z nkhwaSH ym
I am not sad z nkhwaSH n ym

Are you tired? tse staRay yy?
I am tired z staRay ym
I am not tired z staRay n ym

One, two, three yaw, dwa, dre
Four, five, six tsalar, pindze, spaZH
Seven, eight, nine ow, at, nah

Zero sifar
Ten, eleven, twelve las, yiwols, dols
Left, right chap, Shay

Straight ahead negh
Fast, slow tez, wro
Here dalta

Commondo
05-20-2009, 03:05 PM
Ok sir.....I'l learn these ASAP.....

sunnyajmal
05-20-2009, 03:11 PM
yea, n when u learn these then tell me...
n remember we will have quizzes and tests as well OK....

Commondo
05-20-2009, 03:19 PM
yes SIR!!!!!!!

sunnyajmal
05-21-2009, 01:52 PM
thank u, then tell me when are done with them.....

Muffy
05-21-2009, 04:43 PM
that brief intro got my eyes dizzy!!!
wooooaaahhhhhh :smt119 :smt119 :smt119 :smt119 :smt101 :smt101 :smt101 :smt101

Commondo
05-21-2009, 05:08 PM
hehehe......

Muffy
05-22-2009, 02:11 PM
but is dis classes specially for commondo??

lovely angel..cant see much of you these days..

where are you?

Javid_mosafir
05-22-2009, 02:29 PM
very nice.. hope I learn some pashto too.

sunnyajmal
05-26-2009, 03:13 PM
thanks for the visit buddies.......

anyway commondo and other buddies learning Pashto, when u r done with all these then tell me to post some more......

Javid_mosafir
05-29-2009, 01:37 PM
Ajmal jan, what is the different between TA and TASE and what does DALTA RASA mean? birar.

sunnyajmal
05-30-2009, 04:34 PM
hmmmm....good question...
the difference between TA and TASE is like (tu and Shuma)...but in English we use YOU for both...
and DALTA RASA means come here...
hope it makes sense for you...

sunnyajmal
06-01-2009, 10:19 AM
am posting here a basic Pashto vocabulary hope it might be helpful...

(` (Ajnabee) )
06-03-2009, 10:28 AM
Yahan tu zabardast class chal rahi hai

Candid
06-03-2009, 10:37 AM
mujhe bhi sunny aur Haily se baat karna hai par pehle pashto to sikh lun
hahahhahah

(` (Ajnabee) )
06-03-2009, 10:43 AM
TU & SHUMA....mutlab...
and is it dalta rasa Or data rasha

sunnyajmal
06-08-2009, 03:46 PM
tu and shuma means (tum and Aap)
and dalta rasha means come here
and data rasha is miss spilled of dalta rasha...

sunnyajmal
10-12-2010, 05:24 PM
so whats up??? any new learners???